In the journal Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, the scientists identified the regulation of a brain region by fish oil, which controls the metabolic function including the amount of food consumed.
Further results showed that a diet with fish oil did not lead to changes in inflammatory enzyme activity and oxidative stress.
Body weight gain, fat profiles, and hormones that control hunger were also decreased compared to subjects who were fed lard on a high-fat, saturated diet.
The results, uncovered by researchers from the University of Naples Federico II, detailed how saturated fat substitution affects not only the body but also the hypothalamic region of the brain.
Type of fat affects brain function?.
Fish oils have shown great effectiveness in neuroregulation and function. © iStock
The effects of a high fat diet on body mass index (BMI) are well documented. What is not so clear is the neurological effects fish oils have on eating habits dictation and weight management.
A number of diseases related to overeating appear to be linked to the malfunction of hypothalamic neurons to which it is prone nutritional oxidative stress and inflammation..
It has been shown that overeating can activateA main switch in the hypothalamus that records the nutritional status and regulates the metabolism.
The study co-authors, Professor Marianna Crispino and Professor Maria Pina Mollica, first fed rats either a control diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD) that contained either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for six Weeks.
Body weight and food intake were monitored daily throughout the experiment to calculate weight gain and gross energy intake.
The activation of AMPK, a pro-inflammatory enzyme, IKKβ, TNF-α, a marker for inflammatory state and oxidative stress, was also analyzed in the hypothalamus. Serum lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory limitations were also recorded.
“We were amazed at how a high-fat diet affects the brain,” said Crispino.
“Our results suggest that greater awareness of the types of fat ingested with diet can reduce the risk of obesity and prevent various metabolic diseases.”
The study criteria were repeated on a number of OccasionsWhere FD subjects showed a large decrease in body fat mass compared to the LD group.
An increase in body weight was not associated with an increase in food consumption, but with one Increase in energy consumption..
The study included feeding rats a diet high in lard or fish oil. © iStock / FikMik
Considering the impact of this increase in energy intake on the hypothalamus, the team said that while diet was not altered in the expression of AMPK, the levels of the active phosphorylated form of the enzyme (pAMPK) in the LD group were significant.
“Administration of this diet leads to the activation of a key enzyme that regulates food intake at the hypothalamic level,” the study theorized.
“This effect was only observed with the LD diet, suggesting that the type of fat affects pAMPK expression.”
The team also commented on the effects of a diet high in saturated fat (lard) and observed its deleterious effects on the hormones insulin, leptin and adiponectin.
Leptin and insulin are present in the hypothalamic neurons that are involved in regulating body weight, and the loss of leptin and insulin in the hypothalamus can occur promoteObesity and type 2 diabetes.
Dr. Harry Rice, vice president of regulatory and scientific affairs at the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids (GOED), independently commented on the research, saying that understanding how food intake is regulated could help reduce global obesity Reverse epidemic, but food intake is as much about sociology as it is about physiology.
“It is important to understand the limits of any possible intervention,” he commented. “While it is clear that the fish oil diet was superior to the lard diet under current experimental conditions, more research is needed to better understand the mechanisms of interest. At the same time, there is more than enough positive research to recommend an increase in the diet.” Ingestion of omega-3 fish oil (EPA and DHA) for cardiovascular health. “.
Source: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Published online before printing, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00150.
“Effects of a high-fat diet fortified with lard or fish oil on hypothalamic amp-activated protein kinase and inflammatory mediators.”
Authors: Marianna Crispino et al.